Infusions of anti-HIV antibodies suppress the virus for a long time

Infusions of anti-HIV antibodies suppress the virus for a long time

According to small research published today in Nature, HIV patients who started antiretroviral therapy (ART) early in their disease experienced prolonged HIV suppression without antiretroviral therapy after receiving two antibodies. for human immunodeficiency virus (bNAbs).

According to the results, bNAb combination therapy may be a potential option for daily antiretroviral therapy for HIV patients. Scientists from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, collaborated on the study with researchers from the NIH Clinical Center, Maple Leaf Medical Clinic in Toronto, and Frederick National Cancer Laboratory. Research, Harvard Medical School in Boston, and Rockefeller University in New York City.

Despite the fact that oral antiretroviral drugs are very successful in keeping HIV levels in check, some HIV patients find it difficult to stick to their daily medication schedule. Moreover, drugs may cause long-term negative effects as a result of their long-term use, as well as the development of drug-resistant viruses.

Single bNAbs had limited efficacy in keeping virus levels low in previous studies, in part because bNAb-resistant HIV was already present or arose in the individual.

To address this issue, researchers at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases’ Immune Regulatory Laboratory tried a double combination of bNAbs called 3BNC117 and 10-1074 that target separate regions of the HIV surface.

Between September 2018 and January 2021, the researchers conducted a two-part clinical trial. The first component was a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 14 people with HIV. These people started antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the early stages of HIV infection.

Soon after receiving the initial infusion of either the bNAbs mix or the placebo, they were weaned off the ARVs. Participants received up to eight bNAb injections or a placebo over 24 weeks, two in the first month and once a month thereafter. HIV levels and CD4 T-cell counts were checked every 2 weeks.

The aim of the trial was to explore whether BNAb can suppress HIV in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Compared with six of seven subjects who received placebo, none of the seven who received ART had to repeat ART before 28 weeks of intravenous administration.

The median ARV discontinuation time was 39.6 weeks in the bNAb group and 9.4 weeks in the placebo group.

The second component of the trial involved injecting bNAb into a group of five study participants who were not on ART but still had low levels of HIV. Only two of the five participants in the trial had complete viral suppression for an average of 41.7 weeks after receiving bNAb infusions in this smaller group.

The authors note that if patients had viral resistance to either or both of the experimental antibodies before receiving the injection, the bNAb combination was ineffective in reducing HIV.

According to scientists, the spread of pre-existing antibody-resistant HIV is a major problem in the future. There were no adverse effects in the study, and the infusion was well tolerated.

The study authors concluded that in the absence of antiretroviral therapy, bNAb combination therapy could be highly efficient in suppressing HIV for long periods of time, provided that antibody-resistant virus was not present at the start of antibody therapy. Larger trials are needed to confirm the results, but as the next generation of bNAbs with higher potency and robustness becomes available, the results are likely to be confirmed.

“There is reason to believe that administration of these antibodies infrequently (ie twice a year), possibly in combination with a long-acting injectable antiretroviral drug, can lead to prolonged antiretroviral suppression of HIV. (years) in affected individuals,” the authors wrote.

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2022-06-03 21:59:18

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