3D printed holograms against Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease

3D printed holograms against Alzheimer’s disease or Parkinson’s disease

3D printed 3D audio. Credit: Universitat Politècnica de València

The holograms designed by the team of researchers from UPV and CSIC allow the blood-brain barrier to be selectively, efficiently opened in a highly focused manner, facilitating the administration of therapeutic drugs to treat diseases affecting the central nervous system.

As explained by Francisco Camarena, a researcher at the Institute of Molecular Imaging Devices, a joint center between UPV and CSIC, focused ultrasound has great potential for treating neurological diseases thanks to its ability to produce therapeutic effects in a precise and non-invasive way. . “Their application to central nervous system structures is complicated by two drawbacks: the effects of cranial deflection and attenuation and the complex and extensive spatial distribution of deep brain structures,” Camarina noted.

Acoustic holograms designed by UPV and CSIC researchers allow for a more controlled opening of the blood-brain barrier than is achieved through the use of ultrasound exclusively. More importantly, it can correct the deviations caused by the skull. At the same time, they can create a multifocal ultrasound beam in particularly important brain structures.

“Thanks to our holograms, the ultrasound beam is focused and adapted bilaterally and very precisely to parts of the brain of great therapeutic interest, such as, for example, the two nuclei of the hippocampus, which are associated with Alzheimer’s disease, which have an eccentric three-dimensional shape,” he added. Noe Jiménez, Juan de la Cerva researcher at UPV.

It is the first time that the blood-brain barrier has opened simultaneously in both hemispheres. In addition, the UPV-CSIC-Columbia University team achieved this with an accuracy well above the norm. This enables better identification of the area to be treated, and a reduction in the volume of healthy brain tissue targeted by ultrasound while simultaneously reducing cost and operating time.

How it works?

An ultrasound transducer is similar to a loudspeaker, but it vibrates at a rate of half a million vibrations per second. A hologram is placed in front of it, and a wave cuts it. At the same time, a cone filled with water is placed in contact with the skull, through which the wave propagates before it reaches the patient’s brain. Next, the wave passes through the brain, finally focusing on the area of ​​the brain of therapeutic interest. In addition, small bubbles are introduced into the bloodstream. When the bubbles reach the capillaries in the brain and coincide with the ultrasound, they begin to vibrate. The epithelial tissue of the blood-brain barrier begins to regress when small slits open, through which drug molecules pass in order to treat diseases affecting the central nervous system.

Low cost personalized holograms

The reflective image is 3D printed and customized for each case using a 3D printer. “For example, let’s say a doctor needs to do an ultrasound of a patient’s amygdala. So, they’ll give us a CAT scan and an MRI of the patient’s head, where they can identify and segment the treatment area. Based on this information, we design the hologram we need to get Ultrasound of the area of ​​interest,” explained Sergio Jimenez, a UPV physician currently working on a group at Columbia University, who also noted the low cost of holograms, which cost between 40 and 300 euros, depending on the medical application.

The study was published in IEEE Transactions in Biomedical Engineering. Currently, a team of researchers from UPV, CSIC, and Columbia University is working to verify this new technique for opening the blood-brain barrier in non-human primates. The team designs the first human trial protocols for treating brain tumors and performing neurostimulation studies of the brain.


Low-cost 3D-printing device may expand use of focused ultrasound


more information:
Sergio Jimenez-Gampin et al., Acoustic holograms of the bilateral blood-brain barrier opening in a mouse model, IEEE Transactions in Biomedical Engineering (2021). DOI: 10.1109/TBME.2021.3115553

Provided by Universidade Politecnica de València

the quote: 3D-printed holograms against Alzheimer’s disease or Parkinson’s disease (2022, May 17) Retrieved May 18, 2022 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-05-3d-printed-acoustic-holograms-alzheimer- parkinson.html

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2022-05-17 14:56:00

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