Scientists are studying the links between obesity, age and body chemistry

Scientists are studying the links between obesity, age and body chemistry

fat magazine (2022). DOI: 10.1155 / 2022/7122738 “width=”800″height=”530″/>
Comparison of total body, liver and water weights among all treatment groups. Total body weight, liver weight, hepatic somatic index (HSI), WAT weight, and WAT somatic index (WSI) were measured for all treatment groups. The data is presented in the form. Statistical significance was determined by one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s multiple comparison test as the post hoc test (). “a” (age) indicates the age difference between young (4.5 months) and adult (9 months) mice within the same genotype and diet group, and “c” (catch) indicates the difference between HFD-fed young (4.5 months) and ND-fed old mice (9 months old) within the same genotype, “d” (diet) indicates the diet difference between ND-fed mice and HFD-fed mice at the same genotype and age, and “g” (genotype) ) indicates the genotype difference between WT and Cyp2b-null mice of the same diet and age group. No asterisk indicates the value of Journal of Lipids (2022). DOI: 10.1155/2022/7122738

A team of Clemson University scientists are making their way to understanding the relationship between certain enzymes that are naturally produced in the body and their role in regulating obesity and controlling liver disease.

According to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) collected in 2017-2018, more than 42% of US adults and 19% of US youth are obese.

Three Clemson researchers and colleagues from Emory University School of Medicine studied male mice lacking the Cyp2b enzyme and how the enzyme’s deficiency affected the mice’s metabolism.

The research stemmed in part from a simple observation: male mice lacking the Cyp2b enzyme were gaining weight, said William Baldwin, professor and graduate program coordinator in the Department of Biological Sciences in Clemson. The same effect was not observed in female Cyp2b null mice.

“We noticed that our Cyp2b-null mice were heavier in weight,” said Baldwin, a professor in the Department of Biological Sciences. “They are more likely to be obese – at least diet-induced obesity – especially in males than in wild-type mice, and we’ve been trying to figure out why that is.”

While the observation made to the researchers was straightforward, it turns out that understanding the interactions behind weight gain will be more complex.

“It would be nice if there was a nice and simple answer, but maybe there isn’t a nice, simple answer,” Baldwin said.

A variety of roles

Baldwin noted the complexity of the many chemical processes involved in the CYP enzyme, which is part of a large family of enzymes that play diverse roles in humans. He said Cyp2b enzymes help metabolize certain toxic substances and drugs to eliminate them from the body.

But the same CYP enzymes have other functions as well. “They metabolize bile acids, they metabolize steroid hormones, and they metabolize polyunsaturated fats from our diet,” Baldwin said. “This means that all of these things can interact as well. If you have a diet that’s full of fat, that may block the metabolism of the drug. Of course… the drugs may inhibit fat metabolism, they may affect steroid metabolism, etc.” “

The researchers also looked at the relationship between “perturbed lipid profiles” and disease.

The researchers note that susceptibility to disease and general health are greatly influenced by changes in lipids. High-fat diets, such as the Western diet, cause obesity and significantly alter liver lipids, and disturbed lipid profiles are associated with specific liver diseases, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

Credit: Clemson University

Effect of age and diet

Baldwin led previous research into the relationship between diet and environmental toxins. The most recent study focused on the effect of age and diet on these metabolic processes.

“What does a bad diet do to us? What does age do to us? That’s kind of the idea here,” Baldwin said of the latest research. “We’re looking at these enzymes; what might happen over time to our profiles in this mouse model compared to just a wild-type mouse. What might happen over time with a high-fat diet, what might happen as we age, and how it varies between this mouse model, which does not contain these enzymes, compared to a model that contains these enzymes.”

Baldwin said simply, “One of the things we’ve seen, not surprisingly, is that getting older is a bad thing. It’s harder for mice to regulate their body weight. They gain weight. The weight they have is more white adipose tissue.” [connective tissue mainly comprising fat cells]. …and some of these things were slightly worse in mice lacking Cyp2b enzymes. They were a little heavier. They had a little more fat than their counterparts. Their livers were a little bigger and a little less healthy. So they had a lot of those things that we associate with age.”

The diet also had an effect on the mice’s health.

“Of course, the diet didn’t help either,” Baldwin continued. “It’s the same case: eating a poor diet caused weight gain, and it was a little worse with those [Cyp2b-null] mice, possibly due to poor metabolism. “

He said the exact mechanism by which the Cyp2b enzyme acts is not fully understood.

“You take an enzyme that helps metabolize these, but I don’t think it’s really important that it helps get rid of the fat, but it lets the body know the fat is there. It probably produces signaling molecules that say, ‘Hey, we need to figure out what we’re going to do with that fat; We need to distribute this fat. This kind of information. That’s just an educated guess at this time, but I think that’s probably what’s going on.”

Differences in humans

Baldwin said his current research takes a closer look at the mechanisms at hand and how they differ in the human model from mouse studies. He said the research, which will be part of an as-yet-unpublished research paper, suggests that mouse and human enzymes may not work exactly the same way. “The human enzyme appears to make us retain some fat in the liver, and the mouse enzyme appears to drive that into the white adipose tissue,” Baldwin said. “There are hints here in this paper that this is the case.”

The results of the study were published in fat magazine In a paper titled, “Age and diet-related changes in hepatic lipid profiles of phospholipids in male mice: accelerated aging in Cyp2b-Null mice.”

Researchers link metabolic enzyme to obesity and fatty liver disease

more information:
Melissa M. fat magazine (2022). DOI: 10.1155/2022/7122738

Presented by Clemson University

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2022-05-11 21:11:20

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