Drinker gender as well as brewing method may be key to linking coffee to high cholesterol, a known risk factor for heart disease, according to research published in the journal Open Access. open your heart.
Drinking espresso was associated with the largest gender difference in cholesterol level. The results showed that plunger coffee (cafetière) was associated with tightness.
The chemicals naturally found in coffee — diterpenes, cafestol, and kahweol — raise cholesterol levels. The brewing method is impressive, but it is not clear what the potential effect of espresso coffee is and how much.
So the researchers wanted to compare espresso coffee with other brewing methods among adults aged 40 and over (mean age 56).
They were based on data from 21,083 participants (11,074 women; 10,009 men) who responded to the seventh survey of the 2015-16 Tromsø Study, a long-term population study, begun in 1974, that included residents of the Norwegian city of Tromsø.
Participants were asked how many cups of coffee they drink per day – none, 1-2 cups; 3-5; and 6 or more – and the type of drink they drank – filtered; piston (cavitaire); espresso from coffee machines, capsules, moka pots, etc .; and immediate.
Blood samples were taken and height and weight were measured. Information on potential influencing factors was also sought: diet and lifestyle, including smoking, alcohol intake, and physical activity; Educational attainment; and whether type 2 diabetes has been diagnosed.
Women drank an average of just under 4 cups of coffee per day while men drank nearly 5 cups.
Data analysis showed that the association between coffee’s total cholesterol and serum varied, depending on the brewing method, with significant gender differences for all coffees.
Drinking 3-5 cups of espresso per day was significantly associated with an increase in total cholesterol in the blood, especially among men.
Compared with those who drank nothing, this pattern of consumption was associated with a rise of 0.09 mmol/L cholesterol among the women. against 0.16 mmol/L is higher among men.
A daily intake of 6 or more cups of brewed coffee was also associated with higher cholesterol, and to a similar degree in both sexes: 0.30 mmol/L higher among women. against 0.23 mmol/L higher among men.
Drinking 6 or more cups of filter coffee per day was also associated with 0.11 mmol/L higher cholesterol among women, but not men, compared to those who did not drink filter coffee.
While instant coffee was associated with increased cholesterol in both genders, this did not rise along with the number of cups drunk, compared to those who did not choose coffee powder/granules.
The researchers noted that there was no standardized cup size in their study; Norwegians tend to drink from larger espresso cups than Italians, for example.
It’s also possible that different types of espresso — from coffee machines, capsules, or mocha pots — contain different levels of key naturally occurring chemicals.
They added that there are still no clear explanations for the gender difference in cholesterol response to coffee drinking.
They explained, “Interestingly, coffee contains more than a thousand diverse phytochemicals. The intake of each compound also depends on the variety of coffees, the degree of roasting, the type of brewing method and the serving size.”
They added that experimental studies show that cafestol and cholecalciferol, in addition to increasing total cholesterol, have anti-inflammatory effects, protect the liver and reduce the risk of cancer and diabetes.
“This demonstrates how coffee contains compounds that may trigger multiple mechanisms operating simultaneously,” the researchers highlight.
They noted: “Coffee is the most widely consumed central stimulant worldwide. Because of the high consumption of coffee, small health effects can have major health consequences.”
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The relationship between espresso coffee and total blood cholesterol: the 2015-2016 Tromsø study, open your heart (2022). DOI: 10.1136/openhrt-2021-00194
Submitted by the British Medical Journal
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